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Southern Skies

Defunct Constellation Argo Rises


SOUTHERN SKIES By Mike P. Usher usher34105@earthlink.net Nearly due south tonight burns the second brightest star in the sky – Canopus. This star can only be seen in southerly latitudes of less than 38 degrees and really only shines with its full brilliance in latitudes under 30 degrees; in Florida for example! Canopus is the brightest star in the constellation of Carina, the keel of the old ship constellation Argo Navis. In ancient mythology a man named Canopus was the navigator for Menelaus, the husband of the famous Helen. Argo Navis, after dominating the southern sky for a couple of ... Read More »

Jupiter Near the Zenith


SOUTHERN SKIES By Mike P. Usher usher34105@earthlink.net Tonight, Jupiter is very near the zenith (straight up); this is the best time to observe Jupiter with your binoculars. To be comfortable lie down in a pool chair, you can brace your elbows on the chair arms or chest to steady the binoculars. Through the binoculars you will be able to see the tiny disk of the planet itself and all four of the Galilean satellites. Io is by itself on the left side of the planet and on the right are Europa, Ganymede and Callisto moving outwards. The satellites are easy ... Read More »

The Dog Star


SOUTHERN SKIES By Mike P. Usher usher34105@earthlink.net Stargazers can look at this section of the sky for hours. Monoceros, the unicorn in the center, is not much to look at of course, but the Milky Way does run through it and there are some fine clusters awaiting inspection by binocular users. In particular, try to find M47 near the border with Canis Major. Sirius the Dog star is the brightest star in the sky, only the Moon and several planets are brighter. Not that anyone ever needs help finding it, but the belt stars in Orion point right towards Sirius. ... Read More »

What’s in a Name?


SOUTHERN SKIES  By Mike P. Usher usher34105@earthlink.net  It’s been a couple of years since we have discussed star names. There are only about a couple of hundred stars that have actual proper names; the vast majority are only known by catalog numbers. Of the two hundred stars that do have names only about two dozen are in common use by astronomers. The charts attached to this article have a lot more names displayed than are in actual daily use; these names are only of historical interest and are useful mainly for amazing your friends with your intimate knowledge of the ... Read More »

Orion Leaps into the Sky


SOUTHERN SKIES  By Mike P. Usher  usher34105@earthlink.net  There is a lot to see in the eastern sky tonight! Both naked eye and binocular stargazers will be kept busy enjoying the sights nature is presenting this evening. Orion the hunter, undoubtedly one of the most recognized constellations in the world, is rising in the east. Many of the bright stars in this region of the sky are loosely related to each other, being members of what is called the Orion OB1 Association – a sort of loose cluster that is no longer gravitationally bound together. The stars of the belt and ... Read More »

Should you buy a telescope?

SOUTHERN SKIES By Mike P. Usher usher34105@earthlink.net This morning, perhaps as you are walking the dog, look to the east and you have a chance to see three planets – Venus, Saturn and Mercury. Venus and Saturn are easy to spot, along with the first magnitude star Spica. Mercury is much more difficult as it is so close to the horizon. Wait a few minutes and it will rise higher – but wait too long and it will be lost in the morning twilight. Probably your best chance is to wait until November 30 when it reaches it’s farthest distance ... Read More »

The return of the King of the Planets

SOUTHERN SKIES  By Mike P. Usher  usher34105@earthlink.net  Tonight, Jupiter returns to the early evening sky after an absence of some months. Jupiter is nearing opposition which will occur on December 3; Jupiter will be 180 degrees away from the Sun and will rise as the Sun sets. Opposition is important because Jupiter will be at its closest point to Earth on this pass around the Sun. Jupiter will be extra big and bright the next couple of months just begging to be viewed with binoculars. Viewing Jupiter with your binoculars tonight you will see four of its largest moons (Jupiter ... Read More »

Major event just a year away!

SOUTHERN SKIES  By Mike P. Usher  usher34105@earthlink.net  We looked at this region of the sky just two weeks ago; notice how the sky has rolled upwards since then? Perseus, which was just starting to rise last edition is now well clear of the horizon. Being in the Milky Way Perseus is full of interesting deep sky objects, but it is probably best to wait until the constellation is a bit higher to scan it with your binoculars. Pay particular attention to Capella, which is just now rising. Observe how it sparkles, flashes on and off and changes colors constantly. This ... Read More »

Autumn Stars are Rising

SOUTHERN SKIES By Mike P. Usher usher34105@earthlink.net It’s autumn in Southwest Florida, even when it doesn’t feel like it, when the irregular “w” of Cassiopeia rises high in the northeastern sky. This particular area of the celestial sphere is the home of one of the most dysfunctional families in Greek mythology. Found here is Cepheus the King, the aforementioned Cassiopeia the Queen, and their daughter Andromeda. The short version of their story goes like this: Cassiopeia bragged that she was more beautiful than the sea nymphs; who upon hearing this complained to Poseidon, the god of the sea. He sent ... Read More »

The Motion of the Moon

SOUTHERN SKIES By Mike P. Usher usher34105@earthlink.net We don’t often discuss the Moon in this stargazing column because, frankly, it’s a real pain to stargazers worldwide – wiping out all but the brightest stars with its own brilliance. The Moon seems bright mainly by contrast; in reality the rock that makes up the Moon is not much more reflective than coal. The Moon is a fascinating object in its own right, various civilizations have amused themselves by finding patterns like the Man in the Moon, or a rabbit in the dark areas called Maria. The most notable thing about the ... Read More »

The Star That Vanishes

SOUTHERN SKIES By Mike P. Usher  usher34105@earthlink.net In the neck of Cetus, the sea-monster, just under the “C” on the accompanying chart, lies the star Mira. Most of the time it is invisible to the naked eye, so that is what the chart shows. About every 332 days Mira brightens to a maxima of about magnitude 3.5 and slowly sinks back to a minima of around 9. The given magnitudes are approximations; Mira is notably unpredictable. Historically it can get as bright as magnitude 2.0, making it the brightest star in the constellation or as dim as magnitude 10.1, making ... Read More »


SOUTHERN SKIES By Mike P. Usher usher34105@earthlink.net Periodically the question is asked about how a stargazer can take pictures of the night sky. To get really good pictures, it takes some thousands of dollars and a few hundred hours of practice and study; however, that being said, it’s possible to take fairly decent pictures to share among friends and family without too much trouble. To do so you need two things: a camera capable of making time exposures and a tripod. The quality of the photos depends on the size of the camera lens and sensitivity of the imaging chip. ... Read More »

Goats and water bearers

SOUTHERN SKIES By Mike P. Usher usher34105@earthlink.net   Tonight Capricornus, the goat, rides fairly high in the southeastern sky. It is usually visualized as a hybrid half goat – half fish creature; it’s also extremely old – it has endured essentially unchanged for over 3,000 years. Likely this is because of its great importance (to an agricultural society) as being the site of the winter solstice in the early bronze age. Nowadays the winter solstice occurs in nearby Sagittarius. Capricornus is supposed to be the second dimmest of the zodiacal constellations after Cancer, but I don’t find it difficult to ... Read More »

The Hero rides high in the sky

SOUTHERN SKIES By Mike P. Usher usher34105@earthlink.net Face west and look up; way, way up and spot the bright blue-white star Vega very nearly at the zenith tonight. If you can see anything at all you will see Vega, one of the brightest stars in the sky. It’s also the brightest star in the constellation Lyra, the lyre, which includes a small, but distinctive parallelogram just above Vega. For some completely mysterious reason a large number of people refer to Vega as the north star, which is odd as the star is quite some distance (over 50 degrees) away from ... Read More »

The unmentioned constellation

SOUTHERN SKIES By Mike P. Usher usher34105@earthlink.net As Mars and Saturn sink towards the western horizon, leaving the evening sky planet-less until October, look instead to the south and view Ophiuchus. Ophiuchus, also known as the serpent-bearer, is a large constellation situated above the Milky Way and dipping all the way down to the ecliptic – making it the thirteenth zodiacal constellation. This fact is ignored in astrological columns for some reason even though the constellation has been recognized since ancient times. The constellation is usually depicted in old artworks as a man holding a very large snake, something like ... Read More »

The Realm of the Dragon

SOUTHERN SKIES By Mike P. Usher usher34105@earthlink.net We rarely look northwards, but this is the only time of year Draco the Dragon rises high enough to be barely visible here in the deep south. It’s a rather faint constellation, which combined with it’s far northerly location make Draco tough to spot in South Florida during most of the year. You may wish to go out an hour earlier or a week later than indicated to avoid the bright rising Moon. Mythologically speaking, Draco represents Ladon, the snake or dragon guarding the Golden Apples. Hercules slew the dragon as he needed ... Read More »

The Teapot and the Scorpion

SOUTHERN SKIES By Mike P. Usher usher34105@earthlink.net Tonight the two brightest, or at least the easiest to find, constellations of the zodiac are riding high in the sky; Sagittarius the Archer or Centaur (actually it’s both) and Scorpius the Scorpion are easy to locate. Sagittarius has the famous teapot asterism that really jumps out of the jumble of stars that fill this region of the sky; and Scorpius is one of the very few constellations that actually look like the thing they are supposed to represent. The teapot asterism consists of eight stars all roughly equally bright; this time of ... Read More »

The Glorious Stars of Summer Rise

By Mike P. Usher usher34105@earthlink.net Look eastwards about 11:00 and locate the three stars of the Summer Triangle – Vega, Altair and Deneb. These are quite bright stars and if you can see any stars at all in the sky tonight you will see these. The Summer Triangle is not a traditional asterism, but was popularized by Sir Patrick Moore a few decades ago. Vega and Altair are fairly close neighbors of the Sun which is the primary reason they are so bright, being only 25 and 16 light years away respectively. Deneb on the other hand is really bright ... Read More »

It’s about Class

SOUTHERN SKIES  By Mike P. Usher  eas-newsletter@earthlink.net  Classes in Collier County will soon come to an end in a few days when school lets out for the summer, but stars also have classes which they are stuck in for most of their lives. Classes are assigned to stars based on a very detailed analysis of their light; once you know the class a star belongs in it can tell you much of its past history, distant future, temperature, chemical composition and color. As far as a casual sky gazer is concerned class really only means color which in turn is ... Read More »

The Southern Cross rises again

SOUTHERN SKIES  By Mike P. Usher  eas-newsletter@earthlink.net  May and June is the time of year when the most interesting objects in the very deep southern sky pop above the horizon for a few hours. First and foremost is the Southern Cross, technically named Crux. It is always a challenge to see the bottom star, Acrux, but the northernmost three are easy given a clear sky and a flat southern horizon. For this the best spot to be is a beach with a southern view. In terms of area Crux is the smallest full constellation in the sky, but there are ... Read More »